Hepatitis (A, B,C Virus) & mode of infection 2023

Introduction of Hepatitis

Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ.
The name is from the Greek hepar (ἧπαρ), the root being hepat- (ἡπατ-), meaning liver, and suffix -itis, meaning “inflammation” (c. 1727). The condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own) or can progress to fibrosis (scarring) and cirrhosis.
Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms, but often leads to jaundice, anorexia (poor appetite) and malaise. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer.
A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause most cases of hepatitis worldwide, but it can also be due to toxins (notably alcohol, certain medications, some industrial organic solvents and plants), other infections and autoimmune diseases

Type of Hepatitis:-

Hepatitis B Virus

Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects hominoidea, including humans. Originally known as “serum hepatitis”,

The disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives, including 350 million who are chronic carriers.

HBV is a complex double-layer sphere and about 42 nm in diameter in size

The outer surface  or envelope contain hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg)  surround at 27 nm dence core that contains hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)

Inside the core is a genome – a single circular double –stranded DNA with DNA dependent DNA polymerase. A complete hepatitis B virion is called Dane particle(Dane 1970)

Under electron microscope ,sera from HBV hepatitis patient shows three types of particle

  1. Dane particle( a complete HBV)
  2. Tubular particle
  3. Spherical particle(about 22nm in diameter)

Hepatitis (A, B,C Virus) 2023

The earliest record of an epidemic caused by hepatitis B virus was made by Lurman in 1885.

1965 when Baruch Blumberg, then working at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), discovered the Australia antigen (later known to be hepatitis B surface antigen, or HBsAg) in the blood of Australian aboriginal people.

Although a virus had been suspected since the research published by MacCallum in 1947,] D.S. Dane and others discovered the virus particle in 1970 by electron microscopy.]

By the early 1980s the genome of the virus had been sequenced, and the first vaccines were being tested.

The virus is transmitted by

  • exposure to infectious blood or body fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids, while viral DNA has been detected in the saliva, tears, and urine of chronic carriers.
  •  Perinatal infection is a major route of infection in endemic (mainly developing) countries.
  •  Other risk factors for developing HBV infection include
  • working in a healthcare setting,
  • transfusions, and dialysis,
  • acupuncture,
  • tattooing,
  • extended overseas travel
  • and residence in an institution.

However, Hepatitis B viruses cannot be spread by

  • holding hands,
  • sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses,
  • kissing,
  • hugging,
  • coughing,
  • sneezing,
  • or breast feeding.

The acute illness causes liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice and, rarely, death. Chronic hepatitis B may eventually cause cirrhosis and liver cancer—a disease with poor response to all but a few current therapies. The infection is preventable by vaccination.

Hepatitis B virus is an hepadnavirus—hepa from hepatotropic (attracted to the liver) and dna because it is a DNA virus—and it has a circular genome of partially double-stranded DNA.

The viruses replicate through an RNA intermediate form by reverse transcription, which practice relates them to retroviruses. Although replication takes place in the liver, the virus spreads to the blood where viral proteins and antibodies against them are found in infected people.

 HBV: Clinical Features
  • Incubation period: Virus detectable 1-6 Month
  • Clinical illness: 30–40%
    • Jaundice 20–30%
    • Anorexia, malaise, 1–2%
      or abdominal pain
  • Symptoms
    • General: fatigue, anorexia, arthralgia, nausea
    • Advanced: ascites, edema, bleeding GE varices, bruising, enlarged spleen, jaundice, spider nevi, muscle wasting
    • Symptoms may not correlate with liver biopsy findings
  • Typical course: –            Acute symptoms


Hepatitis (A, B,C Virus) 2023
Blood Grouping System
Hepatitis (A, B,C Virus) 2023

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