Blood Group


Blood is a vital bodily fluid that circulates throughout the body, delivering oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs and removing waste products. It is composed of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Plasma is the liquid portion of blood that contains proteins, electrolytes, and hormones. Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, contain hemoglobin, a protein that binds to oxygen and allows it to be transported throughout the body. White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are part of the body’s immune system and help to fight infections. Platelets, or thrombocytes, are responsible for blood clotting and help to prevent excessive bleeding.

Blood type is determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens on the surface of red blood cells. The most common blood types are A, B, AB, and O. Blood transfusions, which involve the transfer of blood from one individual to another, must be carefully matched to avoid adverse reactions.

Blood tests are commonly used to diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Blood donation is also an important way for individuals to contribute to their community and help those in need.

  • Blood is a fluid connective tissue ,made up of cellular component and suspended in a colloidal medium
  • Plasma is a liquid portion of un clotted blood.
  • Serum is liquid portion of clotted blood
  • Plasma portion
  • Plasma protein- 6.8%

(Albumin, globulin, prothrombin and fibrinogen)

  • Nutrient Material ; Amino Acid, Glucose, Fatty acid, Glycerol and vitamin
  • Organic waste product:- Urea Uric acid and creatinine etc
  • Mineral salts:- salt of sodium, potassium, magnesium ,calcium, iron, copper, phosphorus and iodine hormones and enzyme antibodies and antitoxins
  • Gasses :-oxygen , carbon die oxide and nitrogen

Cellular parts of blood

Erythrocyte or RBC
  • In a normal healthy person number of RBC 45-50 lakh/cubicmm. enucleated
  • Diameter -7.2 µ in middle thickness is 1 µ and in peripheral 2.2 µ
  • Aglutinogens and Hemoglobin are present
Leucocytes or WBC
  • Diameter:-19-20 µm
  • No in a healthy person 5000 to 8000/cubic mm
  • Nucleus present
  • Leucocytes’ are two type:
  1. granulated
  2. Agranulated
Thrombocyte or platelet
  • These are the smaller fragment of megakaryocytic there normal count is about 3-4 lack per cubic mm of blood they help in clotting of blood.                                           

Classification of blood is based on:-

  • ABO Group
  • Rh factor

ABO Blood grouping system

Based on the presence or absence of two antigen of RBC A and B

Therefore the blood group of  the individual may be

  • Group A-presence of A antigen
  • Group B-presence of B antigen
  • Group AB-presence of both A&B Antigen
  • Group O-Absence of of both A&B Antigen.

Determination of blood grouping depends on the agglutination and no agglutination with RBC and sex  of four blood groups.

Procedure for test of Blood Group.

3 slide A, B&C have been taken

Put One drop of whole Blood on 3 slide

Adding one drop anti A in slide no –A

one drop anti B in slide no –B

one drop anti D in slide no –C

Then we mix thorough applicator but separately all the slide

Observation is done for 2min and see the agglutination

Result  :-
  • Agglutination in slide A-Group A
  • Agglutination in slide B-Group B
  • Agglutination in slide A&B –Group AB
  • No agglutination in slide A&B-Group O
  • Agglutination in slide C-RH positive

No agglutination in slide C-RH negation


Hepatitis Virus

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